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By Sara Oldfield

Offers a severe evaluate of the way the exchange in flora and fauna is at present regulated and the way these rules are enforced. Case stories incorporated. Softcover.

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Sample text

Shortening the supply chain is often seen as the answer to increasing income to collectors. However, as noted by Edwards (1993) with regard to the medicinal plant trade in Nepal, intermediaries also perform many vital functions including transport, packing and risk taking. Removing intermediaries would expose those with little resilience to a volatile industry. As Warner (1995) points out, The Nature and Extent of Legal and Illegal Trade in Wildlife 17 middlemen are often perceived as being the villains, but the value of the services they provide should not be underestimated.

While the authors offered what they described as a ‘cursory evaluation’ of the effectiveness of listing some species on the appendices of CITES, they came to a pessimistic conclusion regarding the possibility of conducting a more thorough assessment: The combination of needing to consider confounding factors that may affect the effectiveness of trade measures, and the difficult issue of achieving a measure of effectiveness for each species, makes the task of providing an independent evaluation of the trade measures impossible at this time (IUCN, 2001, emphasis added).

27 only that 2 species appeared to have improved as a result of the listing on CITES (Martin, 2000). Others expressed disappointment at the methodology of the study itself, since it failed to carry out a new assessment of whether trade measures were contributing to the conservation status of the species. It was seen as a gathering of views rather than an assessment of effectiveness. More recently, the World Conservation Union (IUCN) has carried out a study of the effectiveness of CITES trade measures on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

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